- About the Center
- Make a Gift
Infant Immune Study (IIS)
The Infant Immune Study (IIS) was started in 1996 with the goal of exploring immune system markers of the early life origins of asthma. Over the next 7 years, 482 mothers in the third trimester of pregnancy agreed to enroll their infant in the study at birth. The IIS is a population based, non-selected, prospective birth cohort study.
The IIS was continuously funded by the National Institutes of Health through 2013. Starting with the prenatal maternal visit, samples and questionnaires have been collected from the mothers, fathers and enrolled children at regular intervals. Including the collection of umbilical cord blood, there have been 7 evaluations completed at ages 3 months, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 9 years of age. At each evaluation a blood sample was collected and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated. A portion of the cells were frozen (fresh frozen) and a portion were cultured and stimulated with mitogens, allergens, respiratory syncytial virus, and lipopolysaccharide. The culture supernatants were then collected and stored for measurement of biomarkers. We have completed measurements of many biomarkers including IFN-y, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and TNF-a. In addition to the blood sample drawn for cell cultures, additional blood samples were drawn for serum/plasma, DNA extraction and complete blood cell counts. Serum/plasma levels of total IgE and allergen specific IgE to several aeroallergens and foods have been completed. At age 9 years, children performed pulmonary function testing (PFT) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness testing (cold air challenge). Allergy skin prick tests to local aeroallergens were performed on the children at ages 5 and 9 years and on the parents when the children were 5 years old.
Two of the strengths of the IIS study are the longitudinal biomarker measurements and the detailed data available for illnesses and infant feeding practices during the first year of life. Of the 482 IIS participants, 430 have childhood respiratory health data between the ages 2 and 9 years. Similar to CRS, our main measure of asthma is derived from the questionnaires and is defined as a physician diagnosis of asthma with episodes or attacks of asthma and/or wheeze during the previous year. Childhood asthma is present for 18% (n=77) of the IIS participants.
Phenotype data for each IIS visit, numbers correspond to participants with data
Wayne J. Morgan, MD
Oddy WH, Halonen M, Martinez FD, Lohman IC, Stern DA, Kurzius-Spencer M, et al. TGF-beta in human milk is associated with wheeze in infancy. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2003;112(4):723-8. Epub 2003/10/18. doi: 10.1016/S0091. PubMed PMID: 14564350
Guerra S, Carla Lohman I, LeVan TD, Wright AL, Martinez FD, Halonen M. The differential effect of genetic variation on soluble CD14 levels in human plasma and milk. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2004;52(3):204-11. Epub 2004/09/18. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2004.00207.x. PubMed PMID: 15373760
Guerra S, Lohman IC, Halonen M, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Reduced interferon gamma production and soluble CD14 levels in early life predict recurrent wheezing by 1 year of age. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2004;169(1):70-6. Epub 2003/10/04. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200304-499OC. PubMed PMID: 14525803
Kurzius-Spencer M, Halonen M, Carla Lohman I, Martinez FD, Wright AL. Prenatal factors associated with the development of eczema in the first year of life. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2005;16(1):19-26. Epub 2005/02/08. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2005.00233.x. PubMed PMID: 15693907
LeVan TD, Guerra S, Klimecki W, Vasquez MM, Lohman IC, Martinez FD, et al. The impact of CD14 polymorphisms on the development of soluble CD14 levels during infancy. Genes and immunity. 2006;7(1):77-80. Epub 2006/01/06. doi: 10.1038/sj.gene.6364276. PubMed PMID: 16395394
Crestani E, Lohman IC, Guerra S, Wright AL, Halonen M. Association of IL-5 cytokine production and in vivo IgE levels in infants and parents. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2007;120(4):820-6. Epub 2007/07/14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2007.05.033. PubMed PMID: 17628648
Rothers J, Stern DA, Spangenberg A, Lohman IC, Halonen M, Wright AL. Influence of early day-care exposure on total IgE levels through age 3 years. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2007;120(5):1201-7. Epub 2007/09/15. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2007.07.036. PubMed PMID: 17854882
Halonen M, Lohman IC, Stern DA, Spangenberg A, Anderson D, Mobley S, et al. Th1/Th2 patterns and balance in cytokine production in the parents and infants of a large birth cohort. J Immunol. 2009;182(5):3285-93. Epub 2009/02/24. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0711996. PubMed PMID: 19234227